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Fighting Poultry Disease
Research into the genetic composition of broiler chickens could lead to a superior breeding stock and provide economic benefits to the poultry industry worldwide.
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Avian Diseases Transmissible to Humans
Bird-keepers (pet bird owners and poultry producers) should be aware that some avian diseases can be transmitted to humans. It is important to note, however, that such diseases are uncommon enough that they should not discourage bird-keeping. For most people avian diseases do not pose a serious threat, but bird-keepers should be aware of them and seek medical assistance if necessary.
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Avian Disease Fact Sheet
Mild form: Decline egg production - Mild respiratory disorder - Sneezing- coughing - Low mortality Systemic form: Chronic respiratory infection - Sinuses filled with cheese (like plugs) - Drowsiness, swelling of heads - High mortality
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Avian Influenza in Poultry
Avian influenza is a viral disease affecting the respiratory, digestive and/or nervous system of many species of birds. Avian influenza virus infection can occur in most, if not all, species of birds, both domestic and wild. Influenza viruses vary widely in their ability to cause disease (pathogenicity) and their ability to spread among birds. Wild species of birds usually do not develop clinical disease, but some influenza viruses cause severe illness or death in chickens, turkeys and guinea fowl.
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Improved aviculture management may prevent candidiasis in birds
Candida albicans , the causative fungus of candidiasis, is normally present in small numbers in the upper digestive tract of birds, and is considered harmless. During periods of stress, however, the fungus can grow rapidly causing a sometimes deadly disease. Besides candidiasis, this disease is also referred to as crop mycosis, moniliasis, thrush, and oidiomycosis.
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Glossary of Terms
Active immunity - immunity or resistance to disease that has been acquired by host response to a disease agent. It can be acquired by having a disease and recovering or by vaccination. Acute - as applied to disease, one which has a short and relatively severe course. Anemia - a condition in which the blood is deficient in quantity or quality. If deficient in quality, there is a reduction in the hemoglobin content of the blood or in the number of circulating red blood cells, or both. Anemia is characterized by paleness of skin and mucous membranes and loss of energy.
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Old Virus Morphs Into New Chicken Threat
In the past 2 years, a new strain of avian leukosis virus has swept like wildfire through the broiler breeder chicken industry around the world. It has attacked the industry at its source, decimating the breeder birds that are the parents of the birds we eat.
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Salmonella Contamination of Broiler Carcasses
Salmonellae contamination of uncooked poultry carcasses and cut-up parts continues to be of great concern to the industry because some of these microorganisms are pathogenic and can cause food borne illness.
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Salmonella Contamination of Broiler Carcasses
At the home premise of the North Carolina man, 500 chickens and ducks were depopulated this March 3rd with the consent of the owner. Across the stress, there are 5,000 broilers in an old greenhouse. This premise has been quarantined. North Carolina does not have the authority to destroy the birds and has no indemnity system. The owner has not agreed to a voluntary, non-compensated depopulation.
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Intestinal Parasites in Backyard Chicken Flocks
Intestinal parasites (worms) are very common in chickens in the backyard type poultry flocks. The presence of a few parasites do not usually cause a problem. However, large numbers can have a devastating effect on growth, egg production, and over-all health. The concentration of parasite eggs in the chickens environment is one factor which plays a major role in determining the severity of the infection.
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Chickens Diseases
Manure Management, Odor and Diseases Control
Livestock producers are going through much criticism for creating pollution and diseases problems. In the mean time farmers having production problems (costly manure removal, energy consumption, medicine cost and most important barn is not save working place.) One of the long-standing and costly problems of handling manure has been the absence of simple, reliable, accurate and long-lasting system of manure collection and transportation out of the barn, Historically, several methods of manure handling were used in the industry assumed that manure would be held for some time in the barn. The Enterprise tendency to lager livestock production, with a concern for quality of food in efficient environment, requires a number of radical changes and development of new methods for proper and efficient manure management.
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Diseases of Poultry
There are many different ways for categorizing the many diseases of poultry. For the individuals convenience, each disease included here is classified by causative factor or is based upon the type of symptoms produced or can be found in the alphabetized list of diseases. The diseases included here are only the more commonly encountered diseases of poultry, game birds and waterfowl. The discussion of each disease includes a summary of causative agents, symptoms, lesions and treatments.
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Poultry Disease General Information
Disease is an alteration of the body or body organs which interrupts or disturbs the body's functions. Such disturbances often are recognized by detectable alterations of body functions. Etiology is the study of disease causes. A disease often results from a combination of two or more causes: (1) the indirect or predisposing factors which may lower the bird's resistance and (2) the direct or determining factors which produce the actual disease. Predisposing causes of disease are referred to frequently as "stress" factors. Stress factors include chilling, poor ventilation, overcrowding, inadequate feeding and watering space, overmedication, etc. Disease itself may predispose another disease. For example, an outbreak of infectious bronchitis may predispose "air sac" infection.
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Bacterial Diseases
Bacteria are microscopic living organisms. They are grouped into spherical forms, straight rods, curved or spiral rods and filamentous forms. Growth requirements of species vary considerably, but most can be grown on artificial media. Bacteria, as other living organisms, have certain requirements as to environmental temperature, moisture and nutrition for propagation.
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Preventing Avian Pox
Pox, described as early as the 17th century, is universal in distribution. Avian pox, which has been called fowl pox, canker, sorehead, and diphtheria, is relatively slow-spreading and occurs on the unfeathered parts of a bird's body or, in some instances, in the mouth, larynx, or trachea. It is caused by a filtrable virus which infects the birds through scratches or broken skin and mucous membranes. Mosquitoes feeding on infected birds mechanically spread the virus to other birds when they feed again.
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Respiratory Diseases
Diseases often are grouped according to the body system they affect. Those mainly affecting the air passages, windpipe, lungs and air sacs are classified as "respiratory diseases" and are among the major threats to poultry health. At first, all respiratory system diseases were known as "colds" and often were considered to be caused by environmental factors such as drafts and chilling. As more information accumulated, it became apparent that "colds" actually were a group of separate infectious diseases having many common characteristics. Possibly all infectious agents causing respiratory symptoms have not been recognized, but many have been isolated and the diseases they produce well defined. Because the nature of the causative organism tells much about a disease, the following outline according to cause is useful in understanding these diseases.
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Common Poultry Diseases in Small Farm Flocks in Oklahoma
Small farm flocks of poultry are common in Oklahoma. Disease control and prevention is essential in order to maintiain a healthy, productive flocks. This Fact Sheet discusses diseases diagnosed in poultry from small farm flocks.
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Managing External Parasite of Texas Livestock and Poultry
Interated Pes Management (IPM) is a system approach that combines a variety of livestock production pratices using both biological and chemical control methods. External and internal arthropod parasites of livestock and poultry are a constant menace.
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Common Poultry Diseases
There are many common and important diseases which can affect the respiratory system (air passages, lungs, air sacs) of poultry (see Table 1 ). Poultry refers to birds that people keep for their use and generally includes the chicken, turkey, duck, goose, quail, pheasant, pigeon, guinea fowl, pea fowl, ostrich, emu and rhea. Due to modern systems of management, usually with high poultry densities, these diseases are able to readily spread.
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Eye Disorders of Poultry
Eye disorders are not generally prevalent in poultry on a flock basis. However, as birds rely heavily on their sense of sight to carry on their daily activities, an increased incidence of eye problems can result in decreased flock performance. A visually impaired bird is at a major disadvantage in competing for food, water, and social position in a population of birds.
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Classical and Variant Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strains
Infectious bronchitis is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens. The disease is characterized by respiratory signs including gasping, coughing, sneezing, tracheal rales, and nasal discharge. In young chickens, severe respiratory distress may occur; while in layers, respiratory distress, decrease in egg production, and loss of internal and shell quality of eggs are reported. Some strains of the virus cause severe kidney damage and may be associated with high mortality.
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Poultry Facility Biosecurity
Disease outbreaks cost poultry producers and related industries millions of dollars a year in lost revenue. To minimize these losses, disease-prevention methods must be followed, including pratices controlling disease-causing organisms (pathogens) and their vectors. Such disease-control measures are collectively termed biosecurity.
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Prevention and Control of Fowl Pox in Backyard Chicken Flocks
During the past several years there has been a great upsurge of interest in maintaining small backyard poultry flocks. These birds are raised for hobby, show and food. Though owners have much interest in their birds, the health status is often overlooked. Several diseases which are easily vaccinated against need to be considered in their health management programs. One such disease is fowl pox.
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Competitive Exclusion and Vaccination as Options for Reduction of Salmonella enteritidis
The Salmonella enteritidis (SE) pilot project (Schlosser et al. 1995) showed that the risk of eggs being contaminated with SE could be reduced by proper house cleanout and disinfection, rodent control, biosecurity, and by housing SE-free chicks and pullets. As a result, the focus for SE risk reduction in the commercial egg industry has been on adoption of voluntary egg quality assurance (QA) programs (e.g. the Pennsylvania and California Egg Quality Assurance Programs, and others modeled after them) which stipulate specific standards for management practices.
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Chicken Anemia Agent(CAA)
The CAA was first described in Japan in 1979. This agent has since been shown to be present in poultry flocks (layer and broiler breeds) worldwide. The CAA, a virus, is very small and rather resistant to chemical and physical treatment. For example, it can resist a pH of 3.0 and heat at 176F for 30 minutes. These factors suggest the virus is difficult to eliminate on a poultry farm once the premises become contaminated. The virus has been classified as a parvo-like virus; however, it may instead represent a new group of poultry viruses.
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Control of Poultry Disease Outbreaks
Poultry owners should immediately begin an investigation if a disease is suspected in a flock. Obvious disease signs and symptoms can be identified on the farm, while others may require laboratory assistance for proper diagnosis. Missouri poultry owners have several state-operated and commercial laboratories available. The services of these laboratories are generally available at minimal cost. They are equipped to identify disease problems and make recommendations for control.
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From Production to Consumption: AN ACTION PLAN to Eliminate Salmonella Enteritidis Illnesses Due to Eggs
The President's Council on Food Safety has identified egg safety as one component of the public health issue of food safety that warrants immediate federal, interagency action. The Egg Safety Action Plan presented in this report identifies the systems and practices that must be implemented to reduce and, ultimately, eliminate eggs as a source of human Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) illnesses. The overarching public health goal of the Council is to eliminate SE illnesses associated with the consumption of eggs by 2010. The interim goal of the Egg Safety Action Plan is a 50 percent reduction in egg-associated SE illnesses by 2005.
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Dead Poultry Disposal
Dead poultry on farms can cause nuissance, odor and aesthetic problems; surface and ground water pollution; disease; and insect, rodnet and predator problems if the birds are not disposed of daily. Proper management of dead birds is vital from the standpoint of avoiding nuissance complaints.
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Pest Control
Control of rodent, fly and beetle production on poultry farms is essential for the maintenance of a good neighbor policy and prevention of health and regulatory problems. CAUTION: It is essential that all pest control materials be utilized in strict compliance with labeling directions. Such materials must be kept away form children and domestic animals. Adequate records must be kept on the use of each pesticide
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Poultry Pest Management
Under Texas' Pesticide Law, certain pesticides are restricted and can be purchase ans used only by pesticide applicators and public operators who are licensed by the Texas Departement of Agriculture.
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Texas Poultry Pest-Control Practices
Fire ants and darkling beetles have emerged as major pest problems in the Texas poultry industry, according to poultry operators surveyed in 1996. The survey found that about half of the market broiler producers reported economic losses from fire ants, and 40 percent of poultry producers reported losses from darkling beetles
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Bacterial Diseases of Poultry - Excluding Respiratory Diseases
Bacteria are microscopic living organisms. All bacteria are not detrimental to animal health. In fact, many bacteria are beneficial and necessary for such processes as food digestion, manufacturing of some dairy products, etc. Classification of bacteria into species is done so disease producing organisms may be separated from those that are harmless or beneficial.
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That's Good Question: Salmonella and Poultry
What is Salmonella ?
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Heat Stress Management in Broilers
High ambient temperatures can be devastating to commerical broilers; coupled with high humidity they can have an even more harmful effect. Heat stress interferes with the broilers comfort and suppresses productive efficiency. During periods of heat stress the broiler has to make major thermo-regulatory adaptions in order to prevent death from heat exhaustion. The result is that the full genetic potential of the broiler is often not achieved.
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Disease Prevention in Commercial Aviaries
The prevention of disease in commercial aviaries requires an understanding of how disease organisms are spread. The common ways that disease organisms enter aviaries are by people, equipment, newly introduced birds, pests and stress.
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Biosecurity for Exotic Fowl
Biosecurity is a pratice designed to prevent the spread of disease into your farm. It is accomplished by maintaning the facility in such a way that there is minimal traffic of biological organisms (viruses, bacteria, rodents,etc.) across its borders. Biosecurity is the cheapest, most effective means of disease control available. No disease prevention program will work without it.
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Viral Diseases
A number of viral diseases of poultry produce symptoms and lesions primarily exclusive of the respiratory system. Among them are some of the most devastating diseases of chickens and turkeys. Considered in this group are avian pox, leukosis, avian encephalomyelitis (epidemic tremor) and bluecomb disease.
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Miscellaneous Diseases and Conditions
Inflammations of the joints and synovial membranes are a major cause of economic loss to the poultry industry. Inflammatory processes of this nature cause losses due to mortality, retarded growth, poor feed conversion, condemnation and downgrading. There are many causes of arthritis/synovitis. Among them are injury, nutritional disturbances and infectious agents. Three of the most common infectious conditions are staphylococcic arthritis, infectious synovitis and viral arthritis.
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St. Louis Encephalitis- The Role of Chickens
St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) was first recognized in 1932 in Paris, Illinois. One year later, a large epidemic occurred in St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri (thus "St. Louis" encephalitis) where over 1,100 cases of the disease were diagnosed. Since then, the disease has remained endemic - constantly present in a particular locality - and has spread widely throughout the United States.
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Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro) in commercial broilers
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious viral infection of immature chickens. IBD is characterized by destruction of lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) and to a lesser extent in other lymphoid organs. The disease is a major problem in concentrated poultry production areas throughout the world. However, it is often not recognized due to a subclinical form. Affected chickens have reduced antibody response to vaccinations, strong postvaccinal reactions, and increased susceptibility to concurrent or secondary infections.
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Automated Chicken Inspection
As chickens move down the processing line at speeds as high as 140 birds per minute, four cameras click away, followed by near-infrared and visible light scans of each bird. Instantly, a computer decides whether a chicken has signs of defects or disease. If not, the bird continies down the production line. Otherwise, the computer directs the suspect carcass to a separate re-inspect line.
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Newcastle Disease: Protecting Poultry Farmers on Two Fronts
Newcastle disease has plagued poultry producers for 75 years. Strains native to the United States cause only mild symptoms-akin to a "common cold" for poultry. But exotic strains can cause devastating losses in other countries and in the United States, if they invade via smuggled birds or wild birds, such as cormorants.
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Getting to the Heart of Chicken Ailments
Humans aren't the only ones who are susceptible to congestive heart failure - the heart's inability to maintain adequate blood flow to tissues. Chickens, particularly broilers, fall prey to a similar condition called ascites. In chickens, the right ventricle of the heart enlarges and can't pump blood efficiently to the lungs. Blood pressure then builds in the liver, and a yellow serumlike fluid leaks from the liver into the body cavity, eventually leading to death.
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Identification and Treatment of Common Mites and Lice of Birds
Mites and lice are common external parasites of avian species. Lice and mites feed on blood or feathers, skin or scales of birds. All avian species can be affected by the same kinds of mites and numerous types of lice, including chickens and turkeys, wild birds, pigeons, pheasants, quail and chukars. They are generally regarded as pests in domestically reared birds, but heavily infestations can result in poor health and performance or even death.
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Infectious Bronchitis and Its Effect on Egg Production and Egg Quality
Infectious bronchitis (IB) can he a devastating disease to any poultry operation. It affects chickens of all ages, types, and breeds. The disease is caused by a coronavirus which is known to have a high mutation rate. Thus, many serotypes (and subtypes) of IB virus exist in the United States and throughout the world. The arrival of new IB variants poses a continuous problem for the poultry industry.
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Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro) in Commercial Broilers
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious viral infection of immature chickens. IBD is characterized by destruction of lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) and to a lesser extent in other lymphoid organs. The disease is a major problem in concentrated poultry production areas throughout the world. However, it is often not recognized due to a subclinical form. Affected chickens have reduced antibody response to vaccinations, strong postvaccinal reactions, and increased susceptibility to concurrent or secondary infections.
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    Nature of Poultry Disease
    Disease is usually a sign of mismanagement. The production of completely disease-free flocks, though, is not economically possible. To minimize losses, rather than simply treating the disease, we must focus on the factors that lead to the disease.
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    Avian Influenza in Poultry
    The avian immune system is divided into non-specific and specific immune mechanisms. Non-specific immune mechanisms include the innate or inherent ways in which the chicken resists disease. This protective system is often not considered when designing a poultry health program. Many programs tend to rely primarily on vaccinations and/or antibiotics to maintain flock health. The importance of non-specific immune mechanisms should be realized.
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    Avian Influenza in Poultry
    Avian influenza is a viral disease affecting the respiratory, digestive and/or nervous system of many species of birds. Avian influenza virus infection can occur in most, if not all, species of birds, both domestic and wild. Influenza viruses vary widely in their ability to cause disease (pathogenicity) and their ability to spread among birds. Wild species of birds usually do not develop clinical disease, but some influenza viruses cause severe illness or death in chickens, turkeys and guinea fowl.
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    Mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial layers: A worldwide problem Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection in the commercial layer industry is common in many parts of the world. The disease persists at a high incidence in commercial layers, despite success in eliminating the disease in layer parent stock, turkeys, broiler breeders, and broilers in most parts of the world.
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    Infection bronchitis and its effect on egg production and egg quality Infectious bronchitis (IB) can he a devastating disease to any poultry operation. It affects chickens of all ages, types, and breeds. The disease is caused by a coronavirus which is known to have a high mutation rate. Thus, many serotypes (and subtypes) of IB virus exist in the United States and throughout the world. The arrival of new IB variants poses a continuous problem for the poultry industry.
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    Chicken anemia agent (CAA)
    In recent years, there has been much discussion on the significance of a newly identified disease of poultry, chicken anemia agent (CAA). Concerns have centered on this disease organism's effects on chickens' immune systems and on its relationship to other poultry diseases. This paper will describe the disease and its significance to poultry producers.
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    Avian Influenza
    Avian influenza is caused by type A influenza virus. The symptoms can vary from a mild disease with little or no mortality to a highly fatal, rapidly spreading epidemic (highly pathogenic avian influenza) depending on the infecting virus strain, host factors, and environmental stressors.
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    Slim Chickens: New Technique To Measure Leptin Activity
    Chris Ashwell of the agency's Growth Biology Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland, recently discovered the presence of a protein called leptin in chickens. Leptin has long been associated with obesity but until now had been found only in mammals such as pigs, cows, mice, and humans. As a result, Ashwell and colleagues Mark Richards and John McMurtry developed a technique to study the hormonal activity of leptin in chickens.
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    The Avian Immune System
    The avian immune system is divided into non-specific and specific immune mechanisms. Non-specific immune mechanisms include the innate or inherent ways in which the chicken resists disease. This protective system is often not considered when designing a poultry health program. Many programs tend to rely primarily on vaccinations and/or antibiotics to maintain flock health. The importance of non-specific immune mechanisms should be realized. Examples include Genetic factors - birds may not have complementary receptors to allow many disease organisms to infect them. For example, some strains of chickens are genetically resistant to the lymphoid leukosis virus.
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