Chickens Nutrition Publications
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Minimizing Microbial Contamination in Feed Mills Producing Poultry Feed
Salmonella contamination in live bird preharvest production facilities can usually be traced to three production factors: (1) feed contamination, (2) environmental contamination, and/or (3) egg transmission. Each factor has an influence on and interrelationship with the others.
Protein for the Backyard Flock
Protein is one of the most important components of poultry feeds, and also one of the most expensive. The reason for rearing poultry, aside from the enjoyment of showing poultry or keeping birds for pets, is to produce either eggs or poultry meat. Both eggs and meat are composed of considerable amounts of protein.
Keep Feed "Healthy" in the Summer
The hot summer months are a real challenge for those producing poultry, either on a commercial scale or in backyard flocks. Chickens can tolerate a cold environment much better than a hot one. For this reason, it is commonly recognized that during the summer we must provide an ample supply of cool, fresh water and places for birds to get out of the sun. However, little attention has been given to the fact that hot, humid summer conditions also create problems for feed quality.
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Chickens Nutrition
Nutrition and Feeding of Show Poultry
The championship potential of a chicken or turkey is determined by genetics. The animal's environment dictates whether this championship potential will be attained. Nutrition is a critical part of a bird's environment, and a good ration is the foundation of chicken and turkey growth.
Small Poultry Flock Nutrition
Water is probably the most important nutrient for poultry because a lack of adequate supply will adversely affect the bird's performance more quickly than a shortage of any other nutrient. This is why it is so important to keep an adequate supply of clean, fresh, cool water before the birds at all times.
Fishmeal in Poultry Diets: Understanding the production of this valuable feed ingredient
High quality fishmeal is recognized by animal nutritionists as an excellent source of protein, energy, minerals and vitamins. Worldwide, millions of tons of fishmeal are produced annually. The majority of the fishmeal produced is included in commercial diets for poultry, swine, dairy cattle, mink and fish.
Ingredient Sampling and Analysis: Why and How
It is obvious that ingredients are the most costly item in producing a ton of feed. Reducing ingredient costs should be the primary task of a person who wants to reduce the cost of producing feeds. Sampling and analysis of ingredients may seem to increase costs.
Finished Feed Quality Problems
A finished feed that does not meet formulated specifications most likely results from an accident or a mistake. While we all are subject to make mistakes, few if any like to admit we made one. The important considerations are: What happened? Why? How can it be prevented in the future? Who made the mistake is of lesser importance. We must determine who made it, however, if additional training in the job is necessary.
Protein Quality and Amino Acid Digestibility
Animal protein meals such as feather meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBPM) are important feedstuffs in poultry nutrition. These ingredients are high in protein but their protein quality can vary. For example, Sibbald (1) and Parsons (2) reported that the digestibility of amino acids, particularly lysine (Lys) and cystine (Cys), in MBM varied greatly among samples. There are several factors that have been reported or hypothesized to influence protein quality of animal protein meals.
Poultry Diets for Small Flocks
The diets are designed to be fed in mash form, and they meet all the nutritional needs of the various species of birds. It is not necessary to provide any supplements, such as oyster shell or grit. The feed should not be diluted with scratch feed or other grains.
Using Meat and Bone Meal in Poultry Diets
Meat meal is an animal feedstuff produced by recycling animal by-products. These by-products include meat trimmings, inedible parts and organs, fetuses, and certain condemned carcasses. They are cooked (rendered) to produce a nutritional and economical feed ingredient. Blood, hair, hoofs, horns, manure, stomach contents, and hide trimmings are not permitted to be added to the meal. When bones are added to the meat meal it becomes meat and bone meal.
Fishmeal: Understanding why this Feed Ingredient is so Valuable in Poultry Diets
Fishmeal is a high protein feedstuff often included in poultry diets. It is usually marketed at 65% crude protein, but the crude protein content can vary from 57 to 77%, depending on the species of fish used. Several species of fish can be processed into fishmeal, but the most common is Menhaden. Menhaden accounts for about 90% of U.S. fishmeal production.
Ratite Nutrition and Feeding
There is limited quality research concerning the nutritional requirements of Ratites. However, some dependable guidelines have been established because of work completed in Australia and Africa. As in all diet formulations, a variety of high quality ingredients should be used to meet the nutrient recommendations of the Ratite. Using a wide variety of ingredients helps to decrease the effect of variations that are inherent in all ingredients.
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Preventing Mycosis and Mycotoxicosis
Research and field problems have made us aware of the hazards caused by fungi and their by-products (mycotoxins)in poultry feeds. The best way to prevent mold problems is to buy good quality grain, ship it in clean equipment, store it in clean facilities, and maintain proper moisture levels. This is easier said than done.
Litter and Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Plans/a>
All agricultural operations are facing increased environmental regulation, especially animal agriculture. Poultry, pork, and dairy producers throughout the United States are being required by federal and state laws to provide environmental protection.