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Chickens Reproduction
Artificial Incubation
Artificial Incubation of poultry eggs is an ancient practice. Aristotle writing in the year 400 B.C. told of Egyptians incubating eggs spontaneously in dung heaps. The Chinese developed artificial incubation methods were often practiced on a large scale, a single location perhaps having an egg capacity of 36,000.
Hatching Egg Sanitation
A common management tool in the handling of hatching eggs is treatment of the eggs with a fumigant or other type of disinfectant to reduce the number of microorganisms on the shell surface. In addition, sanitation of the hatchery building, hatchery equipment, egg transportation equipment, etc., is critical to good hatchability and high quality hatchlings.
Incubation and Hatching of Ratites
Embryonic development is initiated in the infundibulum portion of the oviduct at the time of fertilization. Thereafter, the environment will have major effects on the embryo. The environmental conditions in the oviduct during egg formation and during the storage period from oviposition (egg laying) to placement in the incubator can have significant effects on subsequent hatchability. Time of exposure to the various conditions is also a major factor. However, the environmental factors that are most critical to the normal development of the embryo are those that occur during the incubation and hatching processes.
Incubating Eggs
Many domestic bird owners incubate eggs to help sustain their flock over time. This fact sheet is designed to assist those who wish to incubate small numbers of domestic poultry eggs. The words "fertility" and "hatchability" are often used incorrectly by small producers. These terms are important and have very important meaning.
Incubating and Hatching Eggs
Eggs of exotic birds and common chickens require a standard measure of care in storage and incubation to ensure a successful hatch. Environmental conditions, handling, sanitation and record keeping can impact the success of incubating and hatching eggs.
Hatching Eggs in the Classroom: A Teacher's Guide
Many teachers apply the adage, "Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I'll remember, involve me and I'll understand." Teachers include the life sciences in their curricula, but available science projects that involve and exite students are scarce. Hatching chicken eggs, examining embryos, and observing a beating heart offer the involvement and excitement necessary for a good classroom project.
Hatchability Problem Analysis
When a problem occurs in hatchability, usually it can be categorized as a hatchery, egg handling, or breeder flock problem. If the problem has originated within the breeder flock, it is probable that it happened at least 4 weeks earlier, assuming 3 weeks of incubation and 1 week of egg storage. This delay in identifying a problem is costly and may even make it impossible to determine the cause if the effect is of short duration. It is necessary to identify the problem as early as possible, using candling at 1 week of incubation and constantly monitoring unhatched eggs, to minimize the delay in taking corrective measures.
Reproductive Biology of the Broiler Breeder Male
In the poultry industry, there are many challenges facing individuals responsible for the reproduction of broiler breeders. Many of these problems stem from the knowledge that increasing body growth rate will generally result in a reduction in reproductive characteristics, and vice versa. This situation is likely to escalate due to increased consumer demands for more white meat and less dark meat. The continued trend toward high yielding, fast growing broilers is evident. Therefore, it does not appear that the job of managing broiler breeders is going to get any easier in the near future.
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