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List of Ministers of State - 1999
Members of the 4th Republic Parliament as of October 1999

Communications - [Top of Page] Telephones: 100,000 (1997 est.)
Telephone system: poor to fair system domestic: primarily microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 23, shortwave 0 (1997)
Radios: 12.5 million (1997 est.)
Television broadcast stations: 7 (in addition, there are eight repeaters) (1997)
Televisions: 1.9 million (1997 est.)

Military - [Top of Page]
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, Palace Guard, Civil Defense
Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age
Military manpower-availability: males age 15-49: 4,520,125 (1999 est.)
Military manpower-fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,507,954 (1999 est.)
Military manpower-reaching military age annually: males: 184,360 (1999 est.)
Military expenditures-dollar figure: $53 million (1999)
Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.7% (1999)
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Geography [Top of Page]
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W
total: 238,540 sq km
land: 230,020 sq km
water: 8,520 sq km
Land boundaries:
total: 2,093 km
border countries:
Burkina Faso 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources:
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 24% (1993 est.)
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake

People - [Top of Page]
Population: 18,887,626 (July 1999 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 4,020,493; female 3,982,816)
15-64 years: 54% (male 5,050,736; female 5,231,951)
65 years and over: 4% (male 284,423; female 317,207) (1999 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.05% (1999 est.)
Birth rate: 31.79 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)
Death rate: 10.4 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1999 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
76.15 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.14 years
male: 55.08 years
female: 59.27 years (1999 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.11 children born/woman (1999 est.)
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups:
black African 99.8% (major tribes-Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European
and other 0.2%
indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.5%
male: 75.9%
female: 53.5% (1995 est.)

Government - [Top of Page]
Government type: constitutional democracy
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 7 January 1993); Vice President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 7 January 1993); Vice President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by the Parliament elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2000) election results: Jerry John RAWLINGS reelected president; percent of vote-RAWLINGS 57%
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (200 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 1996 (next to be held NA December 2000) election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-NDC 133, NPP 61, PCP 5, PNC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary];
New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter Ala ADJETY]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; Every Ghanian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kobena KOOMSON
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Dee ROBINSON
embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 775348
FAX: [233] (21) 776008

Economy - [Top of Page]
Economy-overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 41% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. In 1995-97, Ghana made mixed progress under a three-year structural adjustment program in cooperation with the IMF. On the minus side, public sector wage increases and regional peacekeeping commitments have led to continued inflationary deficit financing, depreciation of the cedi, and rising public discontent with Ghana's austerity measures. Power shortages also helped slow growth in 1998.
GDP: purchasing power parity-$33.6 billion (1998 est.)
GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1998 est.)
GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,800 (1998 est.)
GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 41%
industry: 14%
services: 45% (1996 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27.7% (1997 est.)
Labor force-by occupation: agriculture and fishing 61%, industry 10%, services 29% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate: 20% (1997 est.)
revenues: $1.39 billion
expenditures: $1.47 billion, including capital expenditures of $370 million (1996 est.)
Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1996 est.)
Electricity-production: 6.1 billion kWh (1996)
Electricity-production by source:
fossil fuel: 0.66%
hydro: 99.34%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1996)
Electricity-consumption: 5.88 billion kWh (1996)
Electricity-exports: 225 million kWh (1996)
Electricity-imports: 5 million kWh (1996)
Agriculture-products: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
Exports-commodities: gold 39%, cocoa 35%, timber 9.4%, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, and diamonds (1996 est.)
Exports-partners: UK, Germany, US, Netherlands, Japan, Nigeria
Imports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
Imports-commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods
Imports-partners: UK, Nigeria, US, Germany, Japan, Netherlands
Debt-external: $5.2 billion (1996 est.)
Economic aid-recipient: $477.3 million (1995)
Currency: 1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Exchange rates: new cedis per US$1-2,324.70 (September 1998), 2,050.17 (1997), 1,637.23 (1996), 1,200.43 (1995), 956.71 (1994)
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Transportation - [Top of Page]
Railways: total: 953 km (undergoing major rehabilitation) narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (32 km double track) (1997 est.)
Highways: total: 39,409 km paved: 11,653 km (including 30 km of expressways) unpaved: 27,756 km (1997 est.)
Waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways
Pipelines: 0 km
Ports and harbors: Takoradi, Tema
Merchant marine: total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,552 GRT/14,839 DWT ships by type: oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3 (1998 est.)
Airports: 12 (1998 est.)
Airports-with paved runways: total: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1998 est.)
Airports-with unpaved runways: total: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)