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The Value of Bread for Swine Feeding
At times stale bread may be available as a feed ingredient for swine. When cheap enough, bread is an effective substitute for cereal grains in the ration. The composition of white enriched bread is shown

The Digestive Tract of the Pig
The pig has a digestive system which is classified as monogastric or nonruminant. Humans also have this type of digestive system. They have one stomach (mono=one, gastric=stomach). The monogastric differs from that of a polygastric or ruminant digestive system found in cattle and sheep. These animals have one stomach broken into four compartments. Due to the differences in the digestive systems, cattle can utilize different types of feeds than pigs. Cattle and sheep can live on hay and pasture, while pigs must eat grains that can be digested more easily.
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General Nutrition Principles for Swine
Efficent and profitable swine production depends upon an understanding of the concepts of genetics, environment, herd health, management and nutrition. These factors interact with each other, and their net output determines the level of production and profitability. Feed represents 60 to 75 percent of the total cost of pork production. Therefore, amino acids, cardohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water must be provided and balanced to meet the pig's requirements.

Rye Grain in Swine Diets
Rye is not as palatable to swine as other grains and seems to have a growth-depressing effect when fed at high levels. For best results, rye should be mixed with other grains and should not compose more than 25% of the diet. Still, rye is considerably higher in both protein and lysine than corn, which can result in some savings of protein supplement. Table 1 shows example diets formulated with rye. Table 2 compares nutrient composition of rye and corn. Rye should be ground for use in swine diets. A medium to coarse grind is preferred.

Premix, Base Mix and Starter Diet Recommendations for Swine
Premix Recommendations,SEW and Transition Diet Recommendations,Phase 1 Diet Recommendations,Recommendations for Optimal Starter Diet Use

Free-Choice Feeding of Whole Corn and Supplement to Growing-Finishing Swine
Most hogs are fed rations or diets containing ground corn mixed with protein, vitamin, and mineral supplements. These mixed, complete rations usually are self-fed to growing-finishing swine (from 50 pounds to market weight). An alternative feeding method for these hogs would be to feed whole, shelled corn and a complete protein-vitamin mineral supplement free-choice. In this feeding method, whole corn and supplement are placed in separate compartments of a hog self-feeder, or supplement can be placed in one self-feeder and corn in another in the same hog pen. Thus, instead of a mixed, balanced ration being provided, the hog would balance his own ration by eating whole corn and supplement separately.

Breeding Herd Recommendations for Swine
During gestation, the recommended feeding method for gilts and sows is limit feeding. Overconditioned gilts and sows are common problems on many farms. Excessive energy intake during gestation results in three major problems. The high energy (feed) intake: (1) is an unnecessary expense; (2) reduces feed intake during lactation; and (3) impairs mamary development. The success of a limit-feeding program depends upon controlling the intake of each gilt or sow.
Starter Pig Recommendations
What are the key concepts in starter diet formulation ?
Understanding three main concepts is the key to designing nutritional programs for newly weaned pigs. The concepts are relatively simple and can be applied in a variety of situations around the world.


Types of Swine Diets
Various classes of swine have particular nutrient requirements. As such, there are various diets on the market or that can be mixed on the farm that are suited for each class of swine. These diet types usually include the following:

Feeding Wheat to Swine
The primary sources of energy in swine diets are cereal grains. Traditionally, corn has been the mainstay of most swine feeding programs. However, under conditions of fluctuating corn prices and yields, and recent increases in wheat production in the Southeast, wheat can be an attractive alternative to corn for swine diets. Research indicates that wheat can be efficiently utilized by swine of all ages; however, when using wheat to replace corn or other cereal grains in swine diets, consideration must be given to its nutrient composition, method of processing, and quality as well as cost.

Growing-Finishing Pig Recommendations
Many dietary and non-dietary factors impact optimum growth performance and economics of feeding growing and finishing pigs. The use of high lean genotypes and high health technologies, such as segregated production, have lead to wider variations in growth performance than ever before. However, protein and energy have remained the nutrients with the largest impact on feed cost in the finishing barm. Therefore, a wider variety of diet formulations are needed across swine operations to capture the most economical feed cost per pound of gain.

Feed Additive Guidelines for Swine
What types of feed additives are available ?
Feed additives have been used extensively in swine diets. Most swine producers use them because of their demonstrated ability to increase growth rate, improve feed utilization, and reduce mortality and morbidity from clinical and subclinical infections. Because of concern for the development of antibiotic resistance in food born pathogens, feed additives should not be used indiscriminately.

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Triticale Grain in Swine Diets
Triticale is a grain developed by crossing durum wheat with rye in order to combine the grain quality, productivity, and disease resistance of wheat with the vigor, hardiness, and high lysine content of rye. Triticale is higher in protein and essential amino acids than corn, with 50% higher lysine content

Oats in Swine Diets
Oats are not a major feed grain for swine diets, but they can be used effectively with some limitations. Oats are highly palatable to all classes and ages of swine, and are higher in protein and lysine than corn

Fat in Swine Diets
Studies on the effects of adding fat to swine diets have yielded variable results. It has now been shown that during certain stages of production, and in some classes of swine, added fat is of benefit.